Stats Guide

Player: Offensive Overview

The "Offensive Overview" table gives you a look at a player's overall offensive style by showing five stats: Usage, PSA, AST%, AST:Usg, TOV%. Let's look at each of these in order.

Usageclick to show/hide

A player's usage rate attempts to measure how much of a team's offense the player is responsible for. This isn't necessarily a good or bad thing — that depends on whether the player is using that offense efficiently (more on that in a second). But it does give you a sense of how much offensive responsibility the player is shouldering. A player with a very low usage is not creating much on offense (they are more of a role player), while a player with a very high usage is an offensive focal point.

Example: Steph Curry

In the table above, we can see that Steph Curry came into the league with an above-average usage for a point guard, meaning even as a rookie he was fairly involved in the offense. He became a star when his usage jumped over the 90th percentile, before dipping a bit in the 2016-17 season with the arrival of Kevin Durant.

The Gritty Details

CTG calculates usage rate by summing a player's field goal attempts, turnovers, and trips to the free throw line (not counting and-one opportunities), and dividing that by the team's total field goal attempts, turnovers, and free throw trips when the player is on the court. For the purpose of this stat, CTG also splits credit for assists between the passer and the shooter: assisted made field goals only count for half of a normal made field goal, and assists are also credited as half of shot used. One way to think about it: of all the shots and turnovers that happen when the player is on the court, what percentage of them were created by that player?

PSAclick to show/hide

A player's points per shot attempt shows just that: how many points this player scored per attempted shot (with a 2 or 3 shot trip to the foul line also counting as 1 shot attempt). The higher this number, the more efficient the player was when shooting. (This number is displayed per 100 shot attempts so it's easier to read.)

Note that this number is, generally, tied to usage rate, and should be interpreted alongside it. While it's not always true, for most players as their usage increases their efficiency will decrease. It's just difficult to create efficient shots — that's why the best offensive players in the NBA are those that can create these efficient shots even with a high usage. Role players, who have low usage, should find it easier to have a high PSA. They are more selective with their shot attempts and have them created by others more often, so it's easier for them to score efficiently.

Example: Steph Curry

Curry's rookie year was efficient for a guard (81st percentile), but it's really the jump he took the next year, to one of the most efficient guards in the league year-in-and-year-out, that has made Curry the incredible offensive player he is. The biggest key is that he sustained this incredibly high PSA even while his usage has increased.

The Gritty Details

PSA is simply calculated by taking points the player scored (taking out technical free throws) and dividing it by field goal attempts and trips to the foul line (ignoring and-ones). Note that this is essentially the same as the True Shooting Percentage (TS%) stat you may have seen elsewhere. PSA is just TS% times 2. (TS% is divided by 2 to make it look more like a percentage, but CTG uses PSA because PSA is more understandable.)

AST%click to show/hide

A player's assist percentage shows how often the player is assisting teammates. Since a player can only get an assist when his teammate makes a field goal, AST% looks at how many of these teammate made field goals were a result of that player's assists. We can't just interpret this number by itself, since players will, of course, get more assists the more they have the ball. (The next stat, assist to usage ratio, attempts to account for this).

Example: Steph Curry

Curry has generally had an assist rate around average for a point guard. Note that in the 2012-13 season, when Curry split time at the point with Jarrett Jack and therefore is classified as a combo guard, his AST% percentile is much higher (90th) despite having almost an identical AST% to the year prior. As you might guess, combo guards generally have lower assist rates than point guards, which explains the jump.

The Gritty Details

CTG calculates AST% by taking a player's assists and dividing it by the number of his teammates' made field goals when he was on the floor.

AST:Usgclick to show/hide

A player's assist-to-usage ratio estimates how pass-first a player is by looking at their AST% and comparing it to their Usage. This fixes the problem noted in the AST% section, that players with higher usage rates will have higher assist percentages just by having the ball more. So Ast:Usg does a better job capturing how good of a passer a player is.

Example: Steph Curry

Curry has been a score-first point guard over his career, and this metric captures that. The table shows that, compared to other point guards, Curry has never ranked above the 40th percentile in assist-to-usage ratio. In the 2012-13 season, when he shared ball-handling duties with Jarrett Jack, Curry was classified as a combo guard — that year, compared to combo guards, he ranked on the 67th percentile, showing his Ast:Usg is generally more similar to combo guards than to points. This isn't necessarily a knock on Curry. He's been such an efficient scorer that this is likely fine for his team. It just shows his style of play.

The Gritty Details

CTG calculates AST:Usg pretty simply: dividing the AST% you see in the table above by the Usage rate.

TOV%click to show/hide

A player's turnover percentage tells us what percentage of a player's used possessions (as defined in the "Usage" section above) ended up as turnovers. This roughly tells us how turnover prone a player is, taking into account how much they're doing on offense.

Example: Steph Curry

Compared to other point guards, Curry came into the league a bit on the turnover prone side. Over the last few seasons, though, he's reduced his turnover rate even as he's scaled up his usage.

The Gritty Details

CTG calculates turnover percentage by dividing a player's turnovers by their used possessions. As written in the Usage section above, used possessions is calculated by summing a player's field goal attempts, turnovers, and trips to the free throw line (not counting and-one opportunities). For the purpose of this stat, CTG also splits credit for assists between the passer and the shooter: assisted made field goals only count for half of a normal made field goal, and assists are also credited as half of shot used.